Circumcision is genital mutilation and should be forbidden worldwide.
A five-month-old boy has died after parents performed a circumcision at their home in Italy, officials say.
The baby was sent to a Bologna hospital in cardiac arrest on Friday night, but died shortly afterwards.
Authorities in the northern Reggio Emilia province have opened an investigation against the parents, who are reported to be of Ghanaian origin.
In a similar case, a two-year-old boy died after a failed circumcision at a migrant centre in Rome in December.
Some 5,000 circumcisions are performed in Italy each year but more than a third are carried out illegally, according to health charity Amsi.
Circumcision is not carried out at public health institutions in the Roman Catholic country.
Many of the country's immigrants come from Muslim countries where circumcision is commonplace.